《美国采莓移民工的抗争》

编按:你在家中吃的草莓是什么品牌的?有没有想过为你采莓的工人的劳动条件是如何?自15年夏天开始,美国华盛顿及加洲的采莓移民工正向跨国企业 Driscoll抗议其不公平的劳工待遇。他们罢工数次,希望争取更好的劳动条件。香港人作为他的草莓的消费者群组之一,又怎可不知道他们正在抗争?

文:David Bacon/the Progressive;Liz Jones/KUOW
编辑、翻译:红气球

美国华盛顿洲及加洲的采莓移民工正向跨国企业 Driscoll抗议其不公平的劳工待遇。他们罢工数次,希望争取更好的劳动条件。
Immigrant farmworkers in Washington state and California are organizing against Driscoll for unfair labor issues. They had been on several strikes.

不论移民工是在华盛顿洲及加洲,抑或是墨西哥,他们作为采蓝莓工人都必须不断重复其劳累的工作。在华盛顿洲伯灵顿佐木间兄弟农场(Sakuma Farms),这些来自墨西哥小镇瓦哈卡的原住民农夫必须采择40磅的蓝莓,才可以赚取每小时美金10元(即港币78元)。公司网站则写道,工人一天可以赚多于40元,但其实这是在工人采摘100磅蓝莓才有的情况。

No matter whether they work in Washington State, California, or Mexico, blueberry pickers perform exhausting work. At Sakuma Farms in Washington State, indigenous farmworkers from Oaxaca must pick forty pounds of blueberries to earn $10 per hour. The company website says workers can make up to $40 a day, but that’s only if they pick 100 pounds.

不过农场在2015年夏天面对数单官司、工人罢工及消费者的抵制,而工人亦因此得到了一些胜利。这些纠纷亦令县中的各农场老板及工人团体留意。而华盛顿洲最高法院亦将会就佐木间兄弟农场对工人的休息时间等发出判决。这判决可能会引发农场工人在其他地方向他们的雇主采取法律行动
But the farm in Summer 2015 has faced lawsuits, worker strikes and consumer boycotts, which have largely yielded victories for its workers. The disputes have caught the attention of farm owners and labor groups across the county. And a pending Washington State Supreme Court ruling on how Sakuma handles rest breaks could prompt farm workers to bring similar lawsuits against their employers elsewhere.

佐木间兄弟农场的一些工人表示,他们要的是一份有工会参与的合约。他们要求一份就工资时薪15元、具法律约束力的协议,而不再使用现时的件工计算方法。他们亦要求合约中列明不满投诉的机制、医疗保险及季节性的临时工每季回加洲的交通费用。
Some workers at Sakuma Brothers say that what’s needed is a union contract. They’re asking for a legally binding agreement on wages, and for a flat rate of $15 per hour for all harvesters, instead of the current system that pays workers by the pound for how much they pick — what’s called a piece rate. They also want the contract to define a grievance system, medical coverage and payment of transportation costs for seasonal workers who migrate every year from California.

工人之控诉
Felimon Piñeda及他的家人住在伯灵顿工人营地。其中一个工人说,「我们对营地的生活条件不满。营地的床垫是破烂残旧而脏脏的,内里的铁线又出来了。里面有蟑螂及老鼠。天花板在下雨天时会漏水。他们只放袋子到小洞里,但他依然漏出来。我的小孩的衣服全都湿了。」

Felimon Piñeda and his family lived in a Sakuma camp for laborers. One worker said, “We were upset about the conditions in the camp. The mattress they gave us was torn and dirty, and the wire was coming out. There were cockroaches and rats. The roof leaked when it rained. They just put bags in the holes and it still leaked. All my children’s clothes were wet.”

在2013年夏天,伯灵顿农场工人罢工,并组织了独立工会「为正义而团结之家」(西班牙语为Familias Unidas por la Justicia;英语为Families United for Justice)。在罢工时,工会主席Ramón Torres每晚与工人会面,汇报谈判策略及计划。农场尝试以附工作签证的护照计画(H2-A visa program)找一百多个临时工人去替代罢工工人。而其中一个工人Jose Galicia则向三藩市的劳工署递上请愿书,要求他们保障工人之职位。

In the summer of 2013, Sakuma workers went on strike and organized an independent union, Familias Unidas por la Justicia. During the strike, union president Ramón Torres met every night with the workers to report on negotiations and plan strategy. Sakuma tried to bring in hundreds of guest workers under the H2-A visa program to replace the strikers. Striker Jose Galicia delivered petitions to the Department of Labor office in San Francisco to save Sakuma workers’ jobs.

伯灵顿农场透过全球最大野莓供应商、国际品牌Driscoll草莓出售其农作物。伯灵顿农场工人,在太平洋海岸的支持者的陪同下,游行及呼吁众人「从边界到边界」地杯葛伯灵顿农场及Driscoll草莓的货品,直至到他们的工会得到承认。在2015年春天,墨西哥北部的采莓工人为了争取更高薪金而罢工。
Sakuma Farms sells its berries through Driscoll’s, the world’s largest berry distributor. Joined by supporters along the Pacific Coast, workers are marching and have called for a “border to border” boycott until their union is recognized. In the spring of 2015, berry pickers in northern Mexico went on strike to demand higher wages.

原文:http://www.progressive.org/news/2016/03/188606/farm-workers-two-countries-boycott-driscoll’s-berries
http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/06/17/414986134/washington-berry-pickers-push-for-elusive-union-contract

更多:http://www.worldjournal.com/3274061/article-driscoll滥施农药-草莓农拟罢工抵制/